Initiatives on commercialization of agriculture: a case study on potato in urban area of Kathmandu

Considering the urgent need to speed up the agricultural commercialization this study assesses the initiatives on agriculture commercialization taking potato as an example. Data were collected using questionnaire survey of farm households from Sankhu, aperi urban area of Kathmandu district. The information were gathered from 85 farm households from three sample Village Development Committees selected randomly through probability proportionate to size. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the analysis. From the descriptive study it was found that annually each household cultivate average area of nearly o.76 hectare of potato and earns average cash income of Rs 116,000. The study also found that the actual potato yield in the stydy area was 14 metric tons whereas the yield potential is around23 metric tons per hectare. For finding the factors affecting potato commercialization linear regression models with area under potato and contribution of potato income on the household income were estimated. The study found that non potato income and irrigated land were significant for potato area whereas non potato income, gender of the decision maker and irrigated land were found to be significant to the potato income. The study provides some recommendations for commercialization of potato in particular and agriculture in general.


Challenges and prospects for sustainable rehabilitation of conflict induced internally displaced per

The study areas were Morang, Dhanusha, Baglung, Surkhet and Kailali districts of Nepal, all purposively selected where the IDPs were living at the respective district headquarters. Respondents were selected purposively and taken interview with structured questionnaire. In total 129 IDPs were directly interviewed at the time of survey. More than 72 percent respondents were engaged in agriculture before their displacement. All the respondents were displaced due to the armed conflict between 1997 and 2005. Of them, almost two-thirds were displaced between 2001 and 2003. Almost all were displaced by the rebellion (CPN Maoist) for not providing donation as demanded, due to killing of a family member, seizure of property, in accusation of spying and threat to life. The trend of displacement is basically concentrated to the regional headquarters as well as district headquarters from their origins.
About 47 percent IDPs were feeling insecure at their current locations and almost all respondents were living in houses that were either rented, belonged to relatives or to themselves. Almost all IDPs had left their property back home during displacement. After Displacement their relatives, neighbors and Maoists were found to have been using their property. Sixty-one percent respondents had information about Government policy on IDPs return and hardly 5 percent of them agreed on that provision. Similarly, respondents were found to be much aware on Comprehensive Peace Accord (CPA) than the government policy to IDPs’ return. Those respondents who did not agree on CPA, majority of them have suggested for adequate financial support for rehabilitation, food for at least 6 months and compensation of their lost properties in order to create the environment for their return.
Most of the respondents were displaced along with their family members. As IDPs, majority of the respondents had got the support (finance, food, clothes and kitchen utilities) from different organizations and Government agencies till the date. Almost all respondents wanted to return to their places of origin, among them about 90 percent want to return as soon as possible. Though, they wanted to return, they have put forth different concerns and conditions. It seems that most of IDPs had strong willingness to return to their places of origins but they had doubts in the security and peaceful environment. They also expressed the need of their involvement in the current peace process to address the rights of IDPs and to make policy in relation to IDPs. After analyzing the socio-economic status of the IDPs before and after displacement, and assessing their voices in relation to social and economic security, the study tried to find out the challenges and prospects for their sustainable rehabilitations.
Thus, the study concluded that not only the relief packages for them is a way out of sustainable rehabilitation, their concern should also be addressed along with the social security guaranteed by the government.